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fopen> <flock
[edit] Last updated: Sat, 12 May 2012

view this page in

fnmatch

(PHP 4 >= 4.3.0, PHP 5)

fnmatchMatch filename against a pattern

Description

bool fnmatch ( string $pattern , string $string [, int $flags = 0 ] )

fnmatch() checks if the passed string would match the given shell wildcard pattern.

Parameters

pattern

The shell wildcard pattern.

string

The tested string. This function is especially useful for filenames, but may also be used on regular strings.

The average user may be used to shell patterns or at least in their simplest form to '?' and '*' wildcards so using fnmatch() instead of preg_match() for frontend search expression input may be way more convenient for non-programming users.

flags

The value of flags can be any combination of the following flags, joined with the binary OR (|) operator.

A list of possible flags for fnmatch()
Flag Description
FNM_NOESCAPE Disable backslash escaping.
FNM_PATHNAME Slash in string only matches slash in the given pattern.
FNM_PERIOD Leading period in string must be exactly matched by period in the given pattern.
FNM_CASEFOLD Caseless match. Part of the GNU extension.

Return Values

Returns TRUE if there is a match, FALSE otherwise.

Changelog

Version Description
5.3.0 This function is now available on Windows platforms.

Examples

Example #1 Checking a color name against a shell wildcard pattern

<?php
if (fnmatch("*gr[ae]y"$color)) {
  echo 
"some form of gray ...";
}
?>

Notes

Warning

For now this function is not available on non-POSIX compliant systems.

See Also

  • glob() - Find pathnames matching a pattern
  • preg_match() - Perform a regular expression match
  • sscanf() - Parses input from a string according to a format
  • printf() - Output a formatted string
  • sprintf() - Return a formatted string



fopen> <flock
[edit] Last updated: Sat, 12 May 2012
 
add a note add a note User Contributed Notes fnmatch
me at rowanlewis dot com 30-Sep-2010 10:58
Here's a definitive solution, which supports negative character classes and the four documented flags.

<?php
   
   
if (!function_exists('fnmatch')) {
       
define('FNM_PATHNAME', 1);
       
define('FNM_NOESCAPE', 2);
       
define('FNM_PERIOD', 4);
       
define('FNM_CASEFOLD', 16);
       
        function
fnmatch($pattern, $string, $flags = 0) {
            return
pcre_fnmatch($pattern, $string, $flags);
        }
    }
   
    function
pcre_fnmatch($pattern, $string, $flags = 0) {
       
$modifiers = null;
       
$transforms = array(
           
'\*'    => '.*',
           
'\?'    => '.',
           
'\[\!'    => '[^',
           
'\['    => '[',
           
'\]'    => ']',
           
'\.'    => '\.',
           
'\\'    => '\\\\'
       
);
       
       
// Forward slash in string must be in pattern:
       
if ($flags & FNM_PATHNAME) {
           
$transforms['\*'] = '[^/]*';
        }
       
       
// Back slash should not be escaped:
       
if ($flags & FNM_NOESCAPE) {
            unset(
$transforms['\\']);
        }
       
       
// Perform case insensitive match:
       
if ($flags & FNM_CASEFOLD) {
           
$modifiers .= 'i';
        }
       
       
// Period at start must be the same as pattern:
       
if ($flags & FNM_PERIOD) {
            if (
strpos($string, '.') === 0 && strpos($pattern, '.') !== 0) return false;
        }
       
       
$pattern = '#^'
           
. strtr(preg_quote($pattern, '#'), $transforms)
            .
'$#'
           
. $modifiers;
       
        return (boolean)
preg_match($pattern, $string);
    }
   
?>

This probably needs further testing, but it seems to function identically to the native fnmatch implementation.
Sinured 19-Mar-2008 01:04
An addition to my previous note: My statement regarding the FNM_* constants was wrong. They are available on POSIX-compliant systems (in other words, if fnmatch() is defined).
theboydanny at gmail dot com 29-Nov-2007 10:31
About the windows compat functions below:
I needed fnmatch for a application that had to work on Windows, took a look here and tested both. Jk's works for me, soywiz didn't (on WinXPSP2, PHP 5.2.3).
The only difference between them is addcslashes (soywiz) instead of preg_quote (jk). They _should_ both work, but for some reason soywiz's didn't for me. So YMMV.
However, to make JK's fnmatch() work with the example in the documentation, you also have to strtr the [ and ] in $pattern.
<?php
$pattern
= strtr(preg_quote($pattern, '#'), array('\*' => '.*', '\?' => '.', '\[' => '[', '\]' => ']'));
?>
And thanks for the functions, guys.
Sinured 30-Jul-2007 10:14
Possible flags (scratched out of fnmatch.h):
...::...

FNM_PATHNAME:
> Slash in $string only matches slash in $pattern.

FNM_PERIOD:
> Leading period in $string must be exactly matched by period in $pattern.

FNM_NOESCAPE:
> Disable backslash escaping.

FNM_NOSYS:
> Obsolescent.

FNM_FILE_NAME:
> Alias of FNM_PATHNAME.

FNM_LEADING_DIR:
> From fnmatch.h: /* Ignore `/...' after a match.  */

FNM_CASEFOLD:
> Caseless match.

Since they’re appearing in file.c, but are not available in PHP, we’ll have to define them ourselves:
<?php
define
('FNM_PATHNAME', 1);
define('FNM_PERIOD', 4);
define('FNM_NOESCAPE', 2);
// GNU extensions
define('FNM_FILE_NAME', FNM_PATHNAME);
define('FNM_LEADING_DIR', 8);
define('FNM_CASEFOLD', 16);
?>

I didn’t test any of these except casefold, which worked for me.
Frederik Krautwald 12-Jun-2007 10:30
soywiz's function still doesn't seem to work -- at least not with PHP 5.2.3 on Windows -- but jk's does.
soywiz at NOSPAM dot php dot net 20-Jan-2007 07:40
A revised better alternative for fnmatch on windows. It should work well on PHP >= 4.0.0

<?php
   
if (!function_exists('fnmatch')) {
        function
fnmatch($pattern, $string) {
            return @
preg_match(
               
'/^' . strtr(addcslashes($pattern, '/\\.+^$(){}=!<>|'),
                array(
'*' => '.*', '?' => '.?')) . '$/i', $string
           
);
        }
    }
?>
jk at ricochetsolutions dot com 13-Dec-2006 05:39
soywiz's function didnt seem to work for me, but this did.

<?php
if(!function_exists('fnmatch')) {

    function
fnmatch($pattern, $string) {
        return
preg_match("#^".strtr(preg_quote($pattern, '#'), array('\*' => '.*', '\?' => '.'))."$#i", $string);
    }
// end

} // end if
?>
soywiz at php dot net 17-Jul-2006 07:12
A better "fnmatch" alternative for windows that converts a fnmatch pattern into a preg one. It should work on PHP >= 4.0.0

<?php
   
if (!function_exists('fnmatch')) {
        function
fnmatch($pattern, $string) {
            return @
preg_match('/^' . strtr(addcslashes($pattern, '\\.+^$(){}=!<>|'), array('*' => '.*', '?' => '.?')) . '$/i', $string);
        }
    }
?>
jsnell at networkninja dot com 02-Mar-2006 07:12
The last line of soywiz at gmail dot com windows replacement should be changed to:

   return preg_match('/' . $npattern . '$/i', $string);

otherwise, a pattern for *.xml will match file.xml~ or any else anything with the text *.xml in it, regardless of position.
soywiz at gmail dot com 26-Jul-2005 04:07
A "fnmatch" alternative that converts the pattern, to a valid preg one and uses preg_match then. It will work on windows.

<?php
if (!function_exists('fnmatch')) {
function
fnmatch($pattern, $string) {
    for (
$op = 0, $npattern = '', $n = 0, $l = strlen($pattern); $n < $l; $n++) {
        switch (
$c = $pattern[$n]) {
            case
'\\':
               
$npattern .= '\\' . @$pattern[++$n];
            break;
            case
'.': case '+': case '^': case '$': case '(': case ')': case '{': case '}': case '=': case '!': case '<': case '>': case '|':
               
$npattern .= '\\' . $c;
            break;
            case
'?': case '*':
               
$npattern .= '.' . $c;
            break;
            case
'[': case ']': default:
               
$npattern .= $c;
                if (
$c == '[') {
                   
$op++;
                } else if (
$c == ']') {
                    if (
$op == 0) return false;
                   
$op--;
                }
            break;
        }
    }

    if (
$op != 0) return false;

    return
preg_match('/' . $npattern . '/i', $string);
}
}
?>
phlipping at yahoo dot com 06-Aug-2003 03:59
you couls also try this function that I wrote before I found fnmatch:

function WildToReg($str)
{
  $s = "";  
  for ($i = 0; $i < strlen($str); $i++)
  {
   $c = $str{$i};
   if ($c =='?')
    $s .= '.'; // any character
   else if ($c == '*')   
    $s .= '.*'; // 0 or more any characters   
   else if ($c == '[' || $c == ']')
    $s .= $c;  // one of characters within []
   else
    $s .= '\\' . $c;
  }
  $s = '^' . $s . '$';

  //trim redundant ^ or $
  //eg ^.*\.txt$ matches exactly the same as \.txt$
  if (substr($s,0,3) == "^.*")
   $s = substr($s,3);
  if (substr($s,-3,3) == ".*$")
   $s = substr($s,0,-3);
  return $s;
}

if (ereg(WildToReg("*.txt"), $fn))
  print "$fn is a text file";
else
  print "$fn is not a text file";

 
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